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  1. Introductory Writings/Reviews
  2. COP Key outcomes agreed at the UN climate talks in Katowice
  3. Background
  4. The state of climate change adaptation in the Arctic

Vulnerability assessments identify and characterize who and what are sensitive to climatic risks and why, characterize adaptive capacity and its determinants, and identify opportunities for adaptation. This paper examines the importance of case study and analogue methodologies in vulnerability research, reviews the historical evolution of the two methodologies in the HDCC field, and identifies ways in which they can be used to increase our understanding of vulnerability. Temporal analogues use past and present experiences and responses to climatic variability, change and extremes to provide insights for vulnerability to climate change; spatial analogues involve conducting research in one region and identifying parallels to how another region might be affected by climate change.

Introductory Writings/Reviews

Vulnerability research that uses case studies and analogues can help to develop an understanding of the determinants of vulnerability and how they interact, and identify opportunities to reduce vulnerability and enhance adaptive capacity to current and future climate risks. Volume 1 , Issue 3. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.

James D. Ford Corresponding Author E-mail address: james. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation.

COP Key outcomes agreed at the UN climate talks in Katowice

Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Get access to the full version of this article. The President should enact a law within 30 days of receiving it; within this period, the President can ask the National Assembly to reconsider the legislation. If, after this reconsideration, a two-thirds majority of the Members approve the legislation, the President must enact it within 15 days.

The National Assembly is the parliament, a unicameral body, with members.


The members are elected for five years according to a system of proportional representation, where members are elected at national level, and 90 members are elected by provincial districts five members for each province. After the first election for the National Assembly was held in , the following election, scheduled for , was delayed on numerous occasions until it was eventually held in The last election was held in In the exercise of its functions, the National Assembly issues constitutional revision laws, organic laws, general laws, authorisations to legislate, and resolutions.

Unless authorisation is granted to the Executive to do so, the National Assembly has competence for legislating on nature protection, ecological and environmental balance, and cultural heritage. The power to initiate legislation is exercised by Members of Parliament, Parliamentary Groups and the President.

Groups of citizens and the organisations representing them may present proposals for introducing new legislation. Bills of laws and resolutions are approved by an absolute majority vote of the Members present, provided that this amounts to more than half of the Members in full exercise of their office. Responsibilities of local authorities include energy, water, transport, civil defence, the environment and basic sanitation, promotion of economic and social development.

This means that the figures are not directly comparable from country to country as the submissions are from different years. Additionally, although some countries have published updated figures, they are only taken into account if they have been officially submitted to the UNFCCC.

The 'latest reporting year' mentioned refers to the date of the emissions data, and not to the date of the communication. Framework legislation has been defined as a law, or regulation with equivalent status, which serves as a comprehensive, unifying basis for climate change policy, which addresses multiple aspects or areas of climate change mitigation or adaptation or both in a holistic, overarching manner. Executive: instruments that were passed or decreed by the government, president or equivalent executive authority e. The study notes laws and policies for: carbon pricing, energy demand, promotion of low carbon energy including renewables , transportation, and LULUCF.

The categories were assigned by the research team at the Grantham Research Institute based on a review of the text of the law or policy. The cut-off date of the Climate Legislation study is 1st January Significant legislative efforts after the cut-off date are referenced in the covering text of country chapters. It considers vulnerability in six life-supporting sectors — food, water, health, ecosystem service, human habitat and infrastructure. The higher the rank, the less vulnerable the country is.

English - Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability

You can download your search results as a. Multi-hazard average annual loss AAL from natural disasters from floods, cyclones, storm surge and tsunami, represented as a per cent of GDP. Email: Gri lse. An international group of researchers today 20 September warn that policymakers have been receiving economic assessments of future climate change impacts which omit the biggest risks.

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Home Research topics Governance and legislation Climate legislation — countries, regions, territories Angola. Write to us. Alternatively, email us at gri. Drop files here or. First Last. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. The final rulebook applies a single set of rules to all countries — a key red line for the US and EU, which had wanted to hold the likes of China to the same reporting standards as they face.

One of the main debates had been how to decide which developing countries needed this flexibility. Those making use of this flexibility have to say why they need this flexibility and for how long they expect to continue needing it. The US and some others had hoped to put a time limit on this flexibility, but ultimately lost out, even as they secured the common reporting rules they wanted. The rules add that countries using this flexibility should say how they will improve over time.

Emissions must be reported no more than two years in arrears — for example, reporting in would cover the years at least up to The new-style reporting rules kick in for all countries from , one year after the first global stocktake of progress see next section. This means the first stocktake will have to be based on less complete and comparable information. And the level of robustness and stringency was very different, and the clarity was not as good.

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Now everybody has agreed to have one reference document, guidelines — and these guidelines should call for best practice. And if developing countries cannot because of the lack of capabilities, they can explain why, and highlight the gaps and needs, and figure out an improvement plan to do better, with better data, better decisions, better action. Cain adds that this could be done without new metrics as long as reporting separates out short and long-lived pollutants. Another scientist agrees that separate reporting would be useful, telling Carbon Brief that using new metrics could risk changing the meaning of existing targets.

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  4. The idea is that every five years, countries come together and take stock of progress towards the long-term Paris goal of avoiding dangerous global warming. Then, with this global stocktake in hand, countries go home and return with enhanced climate pledges to fill gaps in ambition. These goals, set out in Article 2 of the Paris deal, include keeping warming well-below 2C and ideally 1.

    Talks at COP24 were tasked with setting the ground rules for the stocktake, the first of which is set to take place in The rules also set the structure for the stocktake process, which is to be divided into three stages: Information collection, technical assessment and consideration of outputs. This is encouraging. Loss and damage caused by the unavoidable impacts of climate change was a touchstone issue for vulnerable countries, such as small island developing states.

    The state of climate change adaptation in the Arctic

    In the end, the rulebook mentions this question in several places, though with less weight than many hoped. The global stocktake rules do add loss and damage to the mix, having at one point in the talks relegated the issue to a footnote. It is also…included into the transparency report to be provided every two years. That was not easy as well. Rules were finalised in a number of other areas, including how compliance with the Paris Agreement is to be monitored.

    It will not impose penalties or sanctions. The committee will be able to investigate countries that fail to submit climate pledges. COP24 also agreed on how countries should report their efforts to adapt to climate change.